Electrolysis & Redox half-reactions--
........... OXIDATION is a gain in oxidation state (valence) caused by a loss of electrons.
Cu ---> Cu+2 + 2e-
Al+3 + 3e- ---> Al
........... REDUCTION is a reduction in oxidation state caused by a gain of electrons.
Diffusion & Chromatography (show T-Shirt). Heavy MM moves more slowly and separates the colors in the ink.
Periodic Table & Goose Chart--
Tendencies, properties, etc.
DENSITY -- D = M/V, if M= 20g, and V= 5cm3 , D = M/V, so D= 20g/5cm3, = 4g/cm3
THE MOLE -- Get Moles by no. of particles, mass, volume, concentration, solutions (mol = ML) (L=ml/1000ml/L),
SOLUTIONS-- M = mol/L (L=ml/1000ml/L) . grams of solute = (M)(MM)(L)
Concentration of ions from a solute.
BaCl2(s) ---> Ba+2 + 2Cl-1 so [Cl-1] = 2[BaCl2]
PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION-- H2SO4
EMPIRICAL FORMULA (simplest)-- get mole ratios. e.g.. 31.9g Mg & 27.1g P.
MOLECULAR FORMULA-- Find it for benzene, MM= 78 amu & empirical formula is CH.
MASS NUMBER, ISOTOPES, ATOMIC MASS, MOLECULAR MASS
EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT is the ratio of the [products] / [reactants]. In 2A + B ---> 3C + D
Keq = [C]3 [D] / [A]2 [B] , [ ] is the concentration in M. M = mol/L. L = ml/1000ml/L
Omit the concentrations of solids and liquid water (they have constant concentrations).
EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT for Water, Kw = 1 X 10-14 H2O(l) <---> H+1(aq) + OH-1(aq) so
1 X 10-14 = (x)(x), and therefore in pure water, [H+1] & [OH-1] = 1 X 10-7 M.
BOND ANGLES-- Linear, Bent, Trigonal, Tetrahedral.
WARMING CURVE-- Warm Solid, Melting, Warm Liquid, Boiling, Warm Vapor.
The pH SCALE is an abbreviation for the exponents of the [H+1] ions for solutions less than 1 M.
Because the pH numbers are exponents, a change of one pH is a ten-fold change in concentration!
WRITING and BALANCING EQUATIONS BY TRIAL AND ERROR-- Zn + HCl --->
The GAS LAWS: K = oC + 273o.
PV = nRT or PV/T = PV/T
Standard Temp & Press. = 273 K and 760 mm (or 101.3 kPa).
PARTIAL PRESSURE: When a gas is collected over water, P(gas) = P(atm.) - P(water vapor)
MASS-MASS PROBS.-- 3H2 + N2 ---> 2NH3 Find grams of H2 to make 5 mol of NH3 .
Balancing with fractions: C2H6 + 7/2 O2 ---> 2CO2 + 3H2O
Acid + Carbonate:
H2CO3 ---> H2O + CO2
SO2 + H2O ---> with oxygen ---> H2SO4
NO2 + H2O ---> with oxygen ---> HNO3
CO2 + H2O ---> with oxygen ---> H2CO3
Hydrocarbons from fuel + NOx and sunlight UV give ozone (poisonous).
Results of Acid Rain... Kills plants, animals, erodes structures.
Boom-- Show video 535 Sun, City, and Smog (25min).
G o o d L u c k!